To present our experience with CT,
MRI and DSA in recognising abnormalities of thoracic veins during 12-year period. To raise awareness of radiologists regarding numerous findings on this mainly asymptomatic but for surgeons,
interventional radiologists and anesthesiologists,
sometimes unpleasent occurence.
Congenital abnormalities of the thoracic veins are not common,
but they represent significant developmental anomalies.
Venous abnormalities in the thorax can be classified into systemic and pulmonary.
Systemic venous abnormalities are frequent incidental findings,
while the pulmonary venous abnormalities are usually manifested with cyanosis due to frequent obstruction of pulmonary venous flow and abnormal flow of blood.
They are also associated with congenital cardiac anomalies,
Imaging findings OR Procedure details
From 01.01.2000 until 01.01.2012 at our Radiology Clinic,
a total of 4669 Thorax CT scans were performed.
All patients underwent native CT scanning,
and afterwards suspicion on the abnormality of the thoracic veins was either confirmed or rejected with Contrast enhanced CT (37 patients),
or MRI (1). Venous abnormalities were found in 43 patients out of 4669 examinations (0.92%).
There were 27 male (62.79%),
and 16 female patients (37.21%).
Average age was 47.9 yrs (youngest was...
According to our experience venous abnormalities in the thorax are relatively rare.
Our results mostly match results of other authors who have been interested in the same problem.
Most frequent venous abnormalities in the thorax according to our study are double superior vena cava,
and azygos vein continuation followed by pulmonary varices.
Venous abnormalities are subtle and sometimes difficult for detection on chest X ray,
and can simulate a pathological substrate in the thorax.
MR imaging and CT of vascular anomalies and connections in patients with congenital heart disease: significance in surgical planning.
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Coronary sinus ostial atresia with persistent left superior vena cava.