Aims and objectives
Benign thyroid nodules are very common,
but their treatment is mainly justified if they become symptomatic or cause cosmetic alterations.
Until a few years ago,
surgery was the only treatment available,
but radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and ethanol ablation (EA) guided by ultrasonography appeared as safe and effective alternatives (1,
These techniques increased the number of indications,
including significant growth during follow-up and patients that refuse surgical treatment or with...
Methods and materials
We conducted a retrospective study from 2013 to 2018 which included 99 patients with clinically relevant benign thyroid nodules who met the eligibility criteria and provided written informed consent.
None of our patients were treated with RFA because of difficult management of post-surgical hypothyroidism. Thyroid nodules were clinically assessed with a symptomatic score using a 10-cm visual analog scale (0-10) and a cosmetic grading score (1,
no palpable mass; 2,
no cosmetic problem but a...
Anatomy The thyroid region includes several anatomic structures such as carotid artery,
internal jugular vein,
esophagus and trachea ( Fig. 1 ),
which are important to recognize in order to avoid complications.
the recurrent laryngeal nerve evaluated directly ( Fig. 2 ) or by its function in the vocal cord movement ( Fig. 3 ),
the middle cervical ganglion ( Fig. 4 ),
the anterior thyroid veins ( Fig. 5 ).
These last ones have to be circumvented during the transisthmic approach....
RFA and EA are safe and effective alternative treatments to surgery in clinically relevant benign thyroid nodules. The greatest volume reduction is observed after 6-months follow-up. The only variable in our cohort that predict a better outcome after 6-months follow-up was the greater percentage of cystic portion Antibodies measured during follow-up didn’t change after RFA. In patients with hyperfunctionant nodules,
hormonal indicators were stabilized after the treatment. There are several...
José Miguel Escudero-Fernández Department of abdominal imaging Hospital Universitari Materno-Infantil Vall d’Hebron,
Institut català de la Salut. Passeig de la Vall d’Hebron 119-129 08035 Barcelona Spain Email: email@example.com
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