Aims and objectives
Illustrate the normal anatomical appearance of thigh muscles,
producing detailed didactical schemes correlating with dHRUS-MR imaging findings and providing a systematic technique for the evaluation of such structures.
Provide a clear standardization of muscles injuries in order to facilitate interdisciplinar collaboration.
Describe a detailed,
integrated dHRUS-MR appearance of thigh most common soccer- related injuries.
Methods and materials
Thigh muscles injuries represent one of the most common diagnosis in athletes.
Over the past years,
there has been a gradual evolution in our understanding and management of thigh muscles injuries,
but the challenge of optimising the management of the injured muscle remains.
In professional soccer,
9 out of 10 muscular injuries affect the 3 major muscle groups of the thigh: hamstrings,
adductors and quadriceps in order of prevalence,
demonstrating their high relevance for professional athletes as well as for the clubs.
It is very important to start with a precise injury circumstances investigation followed by a careful clinical examination of the muscles.
An early post-injury d-HRUS between 2 and 48 h after the muscle trauma provides helpful information about any existing disturbance of the muscle structure,
particularly if there is any haematoma or if clinical examination points towards a functional disorder without evidence of structural damage.
MRI (after 48-72 hours post-injury) is mandatory for every injury which is suspicious for structural muscle injury....
Combined d-HRUS-MR imaging allows to better evaluate thigh muscles providing a comprehensive anatomical representation of such structures and,
at the same time,
a detailed analysis of their internal architecture.
US is easily available,
is quick and has low costs,
allows a dynamic assessment of muscles and provides reliable assessment of the extent of damage.
Disadvantages of US are that its resolution is limited to the tertiary bundle and cannot visualise deep muscle planes as well as superficial ones.
It may provide negative results in lesions...
Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in sports-related muscle injuries.
Radiol med (2006) 111:836-845.
Schneider-Kolsky ME,Hoving JL,
Warren P,et al.A comparison between clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging of acute hamstring injuries.Am J Sports Med2006;34:1008-15.
Connell #Michal E.
Schneider-Kolsky Jan Lucas Hoving Frank Malara #Rachelle Buchbinder George Koulouris #Frank Burke #Cheryl Bass.
Longitudinal Study Comparing Sonographic and MRI Assessments of Acute and Healing Hamstring Injuries.AJR2004;183:975-984.