This study aims to demonstrate the imaging aspects of the main congenital anomalies and pathological conditions of the inferior vena cava (IVC) using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Congenital anomalies and anatomical variations of the IVC are relatively rare,
varying from 0.07% to 8.4% when associated with left renal vein variations.
IVC is divided into hepatic,
renal and infrarenal segments,
which have different embryological origins (right vitelline,
and posterior cardinal veins) established from a sequence of vascular formations,
and regressions between the 4th and 8th weeks of gestation.
The most common spectrum of variants can be classified as pre-renal (continuation of IVC with the azygos / hemiazygos...
Findings and procedure details
Patients with congenital anomalies and pathological conditions of the IVC from a private hospital in São Paulo - Brazil were evaluated by MDCT and/or MRI:
INFRARENAL IVC ABSENCE
HYPOPLASIA OF THE INTRA-HEPATIC SEGMENT OF THE IVC
PRE-RENAL AND RENAL
CONTINUATION OF THE SUPRARENAL IVC AS THE AZYGOS/ HEMIAZYGOS VEIN
RETROARTIC LEFT RENAL VEIN
CIRCUMAORTIC LEFT RENAL VEIN
TRANSPOSITION OF IVC/ LEFT IVC
TRANSPOSITION OF IVC/ LEFT IVC CONTINUING WITH AZYGOS/ HEMIAZYGOS SYSTEM
DUPLICITY OF THE IVC
What about THE ILIAC...
previously considered a gold standard in the assessment of IVC,
has been replaced by MDCT and MRI,
which have high spatial resolution,
volumetric reconstructions in several anatomic planes,
and the evaluation of adjacent organs,
with conventional venography being more indicated for therapeutic interventions.
Although MDCT is a method of fast acquisition of images,
it has some adverse effects,
such as ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast medium.
MRI does not use ionizing radiation and can be performed even without administration of gadolinium.
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Imaging the Inferior...