The purpose of the study is to review the anatomy and etiology of pelvic floor weakness and to highlight the role of MRI as a non invasive method in the assessment of pelvic floor dysfunction in females.
Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) is a major medical and social problem.It is a common disorder that can seriously jeopardize a woman’s quality of life.
Weakening of the female pelvic floor is a prevalent and debilitating disorder.
It results in abnormal descent of the urinary bladder,
the uterovaginal vault,
and the rectum,
resulting in urinary incontinence,
and pelvic organ prolapse.
Pelvic floor weakening affects approximately 50% of women older than 50 years.
Pelvic floor weakness has many complex causes.
The risk factors forPFD include...
Findings and procedure details
Interpretation and Grading of Pelvic Floor Disorders with MR Imaging: The HMO System
To help standardize interpretation and grading ofPFD with MR imaging,
the HMO (H line,
organ prolapse) system was developed,
which is applied to a midsagittal rapid half-Fourier T2-weighted image obtained during maximal patient strain.
On the midsagittal image obtained during maximal strain,
three points of reference are first defined: A, the inferior margin of the symphysis pubis; B, the convex posterior margin of the puborectalis muscle sling (the posterior levator...
MR imaging is a necessary tool in the diagnosis ofPFD and it provides good concordance with clinical examination.
As abnormalities of the three pelvic compartments are frequently associated,
so a complete survey of the entire pelvis is necessary before surgical repair.
Static MR Imaging can be also useful to identify the defects responsible for pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence,
and so help perform site specific repair in surgery,
to avoid the high recurrence rates.
Findings reported at dynamic MR imaging of the pelvic...
Fellow in training,
Department of Radiology,Ain Shams University,
1. Bitti G.
and Nicola B.: Pelvic Floor Failure: MR Imaging Evaluation of Anatomic and Functional Abnormalities. RadioGraphics,
2. Boyadzhyan L.,
R.: Role of Static and Dynamic MR Imaging in Surgical Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.
3. Chaudhari V.,
Douek M.: MR Imaging and US of Female Urethral and Periurethral Disease.
1. Chi TW,
Chen SH. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging used in evaluation of female pelvic prolapse: experience from...