Our aim is to present imaging findings and issues in the differentiation of head and neck vascular anomalies.
Vascular anomalies are disorders of the endothelium and surrounding cells and are usually diagnosed during infancy or childhood with an estimated prevalence of 4.5%. Vascular anomalies often cause psychological distress related to cosmetic and functional defects. General complications include congestive heart failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pulmonary embolism, thrombocytopenia and sepsis. Traditional nomenclature of the vascular anomalies caused confusion in the past between clinicians that lead to mistaken diagnosis and treatment. Since the introduction of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification...
Findings and procedure details
Vascular anomalies can be diagnosed by careful history and thorough physical examination. Vascular anomalies can present as telangiectatic stain, ecchymotic lesion or as a large trans-spatial mass. Presentation at birth and changing morphology and size during the time are valuable features that can lead clinicians to an accurate diagnosis. Dynamic MRI imaging is crucial in the differentiation of the vascular anomalies, as well as the pattern of contrast enhancement. Management is multidisciplinary regarding the natural course of the lesion.
Common types of vascular...
When the clinical presentation of head and neck vascular anomalies is uncertain, MRI can often be the only valuable diagnostic tool providing structural and functional information. Being familiar with typical imaging features and pitfalls is crucial in determining the correct diagnosis.
Personal information and conflict of interest
V. Galkowski; Zagreb/HR - nothing to disclose A. Jovic; Zagreb/HR - nothing to disclose D. S. Žižić; Zagreb/HR - nothing to disclose I. Sjekavica; Zagreb/HR - nothing to disclose M. Rados; Zagreb/HR - nothing to disclose D. Ozretic; Zagreb/HR - nothing to disclose
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