Chest, Thorax, CT, Screening, Cancer, Not applicable
D. Penha1, E. Pinto1, M. Ntouskou1, C. Monaghan1, M. D. McCreavy1, L. Taborda-Barata2, E. Marchiori3, K. L. Irion4, M. Ledson1; 1Liverpool/UK, 2Covilhã/PT, 3Rio de Janeiro/BR, 4Manchester/UK
With the increase in number of ongoing lung cancer screening (LCS) programs worldwide, there is an increase in the detection of actionable or potentially significant incidental findings detected at lung cancer screening (IFLCS) in these patients.
IFLCS are a potential source of iatrogenic risk in otherwise healthy patients, if false positive findings result in unneeded biopsy procedures with potentially serious side effects and cost. There is no consensus as to the definition, reporting, or management of IFLCS, with some suggesting that only actionable findings should be reported.
Though most are benign and clinically insignificant, it is important to recognize when an alert trigger and further diagnostic work-up are required.
It is also important to recognise the impact that a screening program using low-dose chest CT scans (LD-CT) may have in a healthy population and how this programmes may shed new light on, not only lung pathology, but also regarding other organs included in the scan, like the heart, mediastinum, the chest wall and the upper abdomen.
The purpose of this educational review is to discuss commonly detected IFLCS at chest LD-CT in LCS and the clinical relevance for further assessment.