Toxicity, Complications, CT, Lung
I. Willekens1, J. de Mey2; 1Brussels/BE, 2Brussel/BE
Imaging findings OR procedure details
E-cigarettes may be a useful tool for reducing traditional cigarette smoking.
For long-term smokers it is speculated that the use of e-cigarettes rather than tobacco cigarettes may be associated with better short-term and long-term health outcomes.
Two potential hazards related to e-cigarettes are acute toxic effects caused by accidental or intentional ingestion of e-cigarette liquids and physical injury caused by the ecigarette device (2).
E-cigarettes both contain and emit a number of potentially toxic substances:
-The two primary ingredients found in e-cigarettes (propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin) are likely to expose users to a high level of toxins and the more ingredients the user is inhaling,
the greater the toxicity.
-E-cigarettes produce a number of dangerous chemicals including acetaldehyde,
and formaldehyde (3).
Aldehydes in cigarette smoke impair mitochondrial function and reduce ciliary beat frequency,
leading to diminished mucociliary clearance.
Inhalation of cinnamaldehyde may increase the risk of respiratory infections in e-cigarette users (4).
E-cigarettes also contain acrolein,
a herbicide primarily used to kill weeds.
Acrolein contributes to the morbidly and mortality associated with acute lung injury and COPD,
and possibly asthma and lung cancer.
-Another popular flavoring,
has been associated with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans or “popcorn lung” when inhaled during manufacturing processes.
Additional information on health effects of e-cigarettes use can be gained from case reports.
There have been reported the following cases: lipoid pneumonia,
acute eosinophilic pneumonia,
pneumonia with bilateral pleural effusion,
suspected acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis,
respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease,
bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia,
and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage.