Interventional radiological procedures can result in high patient doses. Skin injuries are not experienced in paediatric cardiac interventional procedures and the main effect is instead an increased risk of cancer [1-3]. The increased frequency of such procedures calls for a deeper awareness and knowledge of the increased cancer risk due to irradiation, and also of the relation between cancer risk and KAP (kerma-area product).
In the present study cancer risks and the associated conversion coefficients for patients in modern paediatric cardiac interventional radiology have been...
Description of activity and work performed
All procedures were carried out on a biplane Philips AlluraClarity X-ray system (Philips, Best, The Netherlands). The program for cardiology procedures uses a digital image acquisition of 15 or 25 frames/s and the total filtration of the tube is 4.5 mm Al + 0.4 mm Cu in both digital image acquisition and fluoroscopy mode.
The PCXMC v.2.0  module for cancer risk calculation was used together with detailed exam-specific dose-related information retrieved from RDSR, and patient descriptors (weight and height) retrieved from the hospital information...
Conclusion and recommendations
The estimated risk for exposure-induced cancer death (REID) varied between 0.3 and 240 per 100000 patients for the two subgroups (1 year and 5 years) and was in general higher in female patients (table 1). The organs contributing most to the risk were the lungs and the (female) breast (figure 1).
The linear correlation of REID versus KAP for different age groups and gender was good (figure 2), indicating that the estimated conversion coefficients are not dependent on type of interventional procedure. Further, the conversion...
A. Karambatsakidou; Stockholm/SE - nothing to disclose C. Odenberg Storrank; Stockholm/SE - nothing to disclose E. Kvanta; Stockholm/SE - nothing to disclose A. Fransson-Andreo; Stockholm/SE - nothing to disclose G. Poludniowski; Stockholm/SE - nothing to disclose
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2006 Report, volume I, Report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes, New York, NY: United Nations; 2006.
ICRP, 2000. Avoidance of Radiation Injuries from Medical Interventional Procedures. ICRP Publication 85. Ann. ICRP 30 (2).
ICRP, 1991. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. Ann. ICRP 21 (1-3).
Tapiovaara M, Lakkisto M, Servomaa A. PCXMC. A Monte Carlo Program for Calculating Patient Doses in Medical...