Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Pakistan.
According to WHO estimates,
420,000 TB cases occur in Pakistan every year,
with an incidence of 231 per 100,000.
the incidence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) TB is 2.8% amongst new TB cases,
and 35% amongst re-treatment TB cases.
The aim of this research paper is to determine the prevalence of bacteriological confirmed pulmonary tuberclosis amongst the adult population (15>yrs) in Pakistan and to find out the diagnostic accuracy of sputum,
smear and x-ray comparing with...
Methods and Materials
This study used a nationwide cross sectional household survey (prevalence survey Pakistan 2010-2011) based on multistage cluster sampling.
Derabugti and 17 insecure tehsils of Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa were excluded from the sampling frame (based on the census of 1988,
this was 6.5% of total population).
A sample size of approximately 133,000 adults (15 years or older) was selected from 95 clusters (57 cluster tehsils from Punjab,
23 from Sindh,
8 from KPK,
2 from Balochistan,
1 from FATA and 3 fom AJK) with 1,400...
The data was computerised,
edited and corrected for mistakes,
and analysed using SPSS package (13.0 version).
Linear trend in proportions was tested for significance using trend Chi-square.
The Chi-squared test of significance was applied to the difference in proportions of symptomatic individuals and cases among different classifications.
The results showed a frequency and percentage of distribution by gender of patients as 55.9% for males and 44.1% for females.
The cross tabulation between sputum test and culture test showed a sensitivity of 45.0%,
Early detection of TB can be done by chest radiograph in the patients having strong symptoms of TB ,
with greater accuracy than the sputum and smear test,
whilst keeping the culture test as the gold standard.
Keeping in view the high cost,
greater risk of false positive,
lack of standard laboratory facilities for the culture test,
chest radiographs provide a more viable alternative for the diagnosis of TB as they have the same rate of accuracy.
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Ayesha Isani Qaiser Majeed.
Assistant Professor of Radiology.
Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences,