Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) can occur anywhere in the dura mater covering the brain,
and have a 20-40% occurrence rate in the cavernous sinus (1).
There are many types of drainage route for cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CSDAVFs),
namely: anterior drainage through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) and/or the interior ophthalmic vein (IOV),
inferior drainage through the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) and the pterygoid plexus (PPX),
posterior drainage through the superior petrosal sinus,
medial drainage through the intercavernous sinus,
lateral drainage through the superficial...
Methods and Materials
Carotid cerebral angiography in 80 patients (160 sides) with normal cerebral venous return (normal group) was retrospectively reviewed with special interest in the termination of the UV.
The patients who had lesions affecting cerebral venous drainage were excluded from this study.
There were 35 males and 45 females,
with ages ranging from 13 to 83 years (mean age,
All patients underwent selective cerebral angiography,
including both internal or common carotid angiography and vertebral angiography using biplane angiography equipment (Infinix Celeve-i INFX-8000V,
Termination of the UV in normal hemodynamics
In the normal group,
the UV was identified in 118 sides (74%) of 160 sides.
Among the 118 sides,
a single UV was identified in 116 sides,
and double UVs in 2 sides.
The single UV terminated into the CS in 41 sides (34%),
the superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) in 58 sides (48%),
the laterocavernous sinus (LCS) in 15 sides (13%),
and the paracavernous sinus (PCS) in 4 sides (3%).
The double UV in two sides terminated...
Padget described the detailed developmental anatomy of the cranial venous system (4).
During the early embryonic stage,
the deep telencephalic vein (DTV) flows into the primitive tentorial sinus,
which is the precursor of the superficial telencephalic vein.
The primitive tentorial sinus runs posteriorly and connects to the transverse sinus.
the basal cerebral vein is formed by the anastomosis of the terminal branches of the DTV,
the ventral diencephalic vein (VDV),
dorsal diencephalic vein (DDV) and mesencephalic vein (Fig.
The UV is thought...
Treatment of Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Current Strategies Based on Location and Hemodynamics,
and Alternative Techniques of trans catheter Embolization,
neurological manifestations of intracranial dural arteriovenous malformations.
J Neurisurg 64: 724-730,
The basal cerebral vein and its tributaries.In: Newton TH,
Radiology of the Skull and Brain
The cranial venous system in man...